March 16, 2015-03-20
Doctoral Thesis JUAN MANUEL MARTÍNEZ
Department of Agronomy, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina
Director Dr. Juan Galantini
Comisión Investigaciones Científicas (CIC), CERZOS (UNS CONICET)
NITROGEN USE AND BALANCE IN WHEAT SYSTEMS AL SO BONAERENSE: SOIL DYNAMIC AND CROP NUTRITION
Optimizing nitrogen fertilization in regions with low and variable rainfall is difficult, because it demand to know the nitrogen (N) dynamics in the soil-plant system under no-tillage (SD). Therefore, the general hypothesis was: the N use efficiency (EUN) varies with water availability and efficiency of fertilization can be improved by knowing N supply of labile organic fractions. The overall aim was to evaluate the EUN in different soil and climatic conditions and estimate the amount and origin of N from the decomposition of soil organic matter. From 2004 to 2012, 18 trials were conducted combining fertilization rates and timing in several fields. Also, during 2010 and 2011 the apparent N mineralization was evaluated in 78 agricultural fields, with more than 10 years under SD with the aim of finding soil mineralization and crop indicators. The importance of the more carbon and N labile fractions on potentially N mineralization, determined in long-term incubations was proved. Carbon of fine particulate fraction (COPf) might be a better index N mineralization than the total particulate organic carbon (COPt). Anaerobic N (Nan) was the most related index to N mineralization; however, the use of rapid indexes with soil parameters improved the prediction of apparent N mineralization. Only higher yields were detected by N at tillering -in semiarid environment- where rainfall year exceeded the historical average. In subhumid environment was not found differential effect with N applied at vegetative stages. The clorophyll meter was a promising indicator of N uptake, however, would not be an accurate tool for predicting the N grain. Furthermore, was found that Spad readings with available N improved the prediction of EUN and physiological efficiency. The SD improved all N organic fractions. Although Nan was not associated with the N uptake at harvest, showed differences between tillage systems, being indicator of potential fertility, not necessarily associated with performance.